The Lir DOB is 35m * 12m and is fitted with an adjustable floor which allows testing at water depths from 0 to 3 m. The basin has 16 hinged force feedback paddles capable of a peak wave generation condition of Hs = 0.6m, Tp = 2.7s and Hmax = 1.1m. The DOB has been designed to:
The DOB is fitted with a towing carriage that can operate at speeds up to 0.7m/s, a data acquisition system, sensors, 3D motion camera system and a PIV system for flow visualisation.
Services offered by the infrastructure includes:
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The Lir OOE is 25m * 18 m and nominally 1m in depth. A central trench, equipped with a moveable floor, allows for testing at water depths between 1 and 2.5m. A curved wall of wave generation paddles allows for omnidirectional wave generation which peaks at Hs = 0.16m, Tp = 1.4s and Hmax = 0.32m. The OOE was constructed following the identification, during MARINET1, of the need for more advanced testing infrastructure at early stage Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs).
The OOE has been designed to:
The basin is fitted with a data acquisition system, sensors, 3D motion camera system and a PIV system for flow visualisation.
Services offered by the infrastructure includes:
More information available here: http://rid.eurocean.org/record.jsp?load=1840
The Lir Flume is 25m * 3m and 0.6 to 1.2 m in depth. The operational height of the wave generation paddles is adjustable to allow for the generation of a broad range of sea states at different water depths. The Flume is a multi-purpose facility with the capability of running separate and combined unidirectional wave and current tests. It has 8 hinged force feedback paddles and three thrusters for generating current speeds of greater than 1m/s. The wave generation peaks at Hs = 0.16m, Tp = 1.5s and Hmax = 0.35m.
The Flume is fitted with a towing carriage that can operate at speeds up to 1.5m/s, data acquisition system, sensors, 3D motion camera system and a PIV system for flow visualisation.
Services offered by the infrastructure includes:
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EMEC’s HIL PTO testing rig will provide a sequence of speeds and loads to a power take off by an actuation device, simulating waves on dry land for the purpose of accelerated testing of power take off systems for wave energy convertors (WEC).
The test rig can also be used to adjust the PTO and the controller parameters to validate assumptions for performance optimisation and survivability modes. Furthermore, it can be used for fatigue, loads or efficiency testing of a specific sub-system of the WEC. The rig will have a stroke length of 3.5m, a rated velocity of 2.7m/s and a maximum rack force of 207kN.
The rig will primarily be used for simulating wave loading on PTO systems for WEC. However, EMEC are open to suggestions for other projects that could utilise the testing rig facility.
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EMEC’s scale wave test is located in Scapa Flow. The large naturally enclosed area of water offers testing for smaller scale, non-grid connected wave energy convertors. Scapa Flow has two berths between 21m and 25m depth with an average wave height of 0.34m with maximum recorded significant wave heights of 2.91m, wave periods are usually less than 8 seconds.
At our scale sites, we offer developers the use of a bespoke test support buoy. If required, the device under test will be connected to the test support buoy via two umbilical cables: one for power transmission and the other for control and communications. These buoys can relay data by wireless technology allowing developers to monitor performance remotely, as well as dissipating electricity generated by the device. The buoys are also equipped to supply the marine energy devices on test with power and act as navigational aids.
EMEC holds an overarching site licence, simplifying the consent process within an agreed envelope of activity. Each test site comprises one berth with pre-laid foundation and attachment points, and adjacent ‘blank’ test area. The pre-laid foundations comprise 5m x 5m x 2m gravity-base frames loaded with densecrete blocks for equipment moorings. An area of seabed is also available for rehearsal or deployment of other tools and techniques.
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EMEC’s grid-connected wave test site is placed on the western edge of the Orkney mainland, at Billia Croo. Subjected to the forces of the North Atlantic Ocean, it is an area with one of the best wave energy potentials in Europe with an average significant wave height of 2 – 3 metres.
The site consists of five 11kV sub-sea cabled test berths in up to 70m water depth (four at 50m, one deeper), located approximately 2km offshore and 0.5km apart. In addition to this, a near shore berth is situated closer to the substation for shallow water projects.
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The Hydrodynamics laboratory of Boulogne-sur-Mer is part of the Development and Research Technologies Unit and carries out research on submarine devices and new offshore concepts. Experimental and numerical facilities are used to carry out hydrodynamical studies and provide expertise in partnership or confidential matter. The Boulogne-sur-Mer unit is a wave and current flume tank where fluid/structure interaction problems are tested under conditions close to real ones. Specific measuring techniques dealing with hydrodynamics are regularly implemented. Tests are carried out for French and foreign partners for development and research projects or for assistance in confidential matter.
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The Kelvin Hydrodynamics Lab tank provides excellent conditions for measuring the performance of surface ships and a wide variety of floating and underwater structures.
Ship models used are up to 4m in length. High quality, single frequency waves and random sea states may be generated with wave heights over 0.5m.
The motions of floating vessels and structures are measured using a state-of-the-art, real-time, non-contact infrared camera system.
Resistance dynamometers for different vessel types and model sizes are available as well as a six degree-of-freedom dynamometer for force measurement. Up to 25 wave probes may be used to determine water surface elevation in the tank. A 3-axis fluid velocity measurement system and a PIV system are also available. Pressure distributions on model surfaces can be measured. Above-water and underwater video systems are available.
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This plant consists of a hollow reinforced concrete structure – pneumatic chamber – above the water free surface that communicates with the sea and the incident waves by a submerged opening (1+3) in its front wall, and with the atmosphere by a fibre duct with an air turbine (2+4).
The incident waves cause vertical oscillation of the water column inside the chamber, which in turn causes alternate air flow to and from the atmosphere, driving the turbine and the generator attached to it. The electricity is fed into the local grid of EDA (Regional Utility) at the Cachorro grid connection point. An important factor in designing this kind of plants is the dimensions of the pneumatic chamber, in order to provide resonance with the incident sea state.
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The wave basin is 14.6 m x 19.3 m x 1.5 m with an active test area of 13 x 10 m. A deep water pit with size 6.5 m x 2.0 m with up to 6 m extra depth is available. The basin holds up to approximately 400 m3 water (400.000 liters) and accommodates testing on deep and shallow water. The basin is equipped with long-stroke segmented piston wavemaker for accurate short-crested (3-dimensional) random wave generation with active absorption and pumps for currents. The wavemakers are powered by electric motors which allows for less acoustic noise, no oil pollution in the basin and more accurate waves.
The equipment wave and current generation system for basin:
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ORE Catapult’s open access dry dock testing facilities which include a simulated seabed and still water tanks provide a flexible and controlled onshore saltwater location for all stages of technology development. Site features: simulated seabed; indoor and outdoor assembly with crane and engineering support; exclusive and secure on-site office; operations support team and workshop facilities and mobile tower lighting and flat bottomed work boat.
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With a width of 44m, a length of 30m and 4 m in depth the CCOB is a facility designed to carry out large scale wave tests for coastal and offshore engineering. It is capable of generating a multidirectional waves, omnidirectional currents and wind, all with a 6m diameter, depth adjustable pit, giving it up to an additional 8m of depth.
It is a combination of three integrated systems to be used in the applied research of coastal and offshore engineering: experimental, numerical and physical modelling system
The main goal of the physical modelling system is to carry out testing to measure hydrodynamic and wave-structure interaction processes, which can include the sediment transport effects, the effects of tsunamis and the wave-current and wave-wind interaction
Wave generation: Segmented system formed by 64 independent wave paddles (0.5m wide and 4.5 m high). Each one is triggered by two articulated arms and a vertical connecting rod. Full 3D active wave absorption. Passive wave absorbers around the full perimeter. Non-linear wave generation, and second order long-wave generation. Lateral panels for directional wave generation with virtual paddles (corner reflection method, increases the width of the wave machine)
Current generator: 12 thrusters, 900 mm in diameter and 25 kW/thruster
Wind generator: Group of 9 computer controlled wind fans mounted on a closed portable and variable height frame with a wind stabilization system and funnel.
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This basin allows the physical modelling, at model scale, of offshore floating systems, navigating or anchored, in deep seas (ships, MRE systems, oil & gas).
The wave tank has a large surface area (50 by 30m) and a constant depth of 5m. A segmented flap-type wave maker, cumulating 48 independently- controlled flaps, is present on one of its 30m-long sides. It allows generating basic unidirectional monochromatic sea states up to complex multidirectional sea states encountered in deep water seas. On its opposite side, a quadratic profile stainless steel dissipative beach helps energy dissipation through wave breaking processes.
The wave maker’s power allows generating regular waves with crest-to-through wave height of up to 1m, as well as irregular multidirectional sea states with significant wave height up to 0.65m. Very large amplitude waves, of wave height up to about 2m, can also be generated using space and/or time focusing techniques.
By its size and it wave generation capabilities, it is actually the largest wave tank in France.
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The French research sea test site (SEM-REV) is part of the experimental facilities of Ecole Centrale Nantes to develop marine based energy generation products. The 1km2 site is located 10 nautical miles West-South-West of Le Croisic’s cape on France’s western Atlantic coastline with water depths ranging from 32-36m.
The area has a restricted access for navigation and has all permitting to install Ocean Energy devices to be tested. Offshore wind energy and wave energy converters can be tested, as well as all sub-components and installation and maintenance operations. The site is connected to the grid and has the possibility to connect three devices.
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SmartBay is Ireland’s national marine test and demonstration facility for the development of innovative products and services for the global maritime sector. This includes the trial and validation of novel marine sensors, prototype equipment and the collection and dissemination of marine data to national and international users of the facility.
SmartBay supports the testing and validation of novel sensors and equipment for its users. Facilities include surface platforms and a sub-sea cabled observatory demonstrating and validating of new technologies and solutions. Users can access the SmartBay information and communication technology environment to validate innovative solutions for marine and related sectors.
A specialist team of marine operations and instrumentation technicians provides a range of supports to all users of the facility. This enables users of the facility to focus on data analysis, device validation and product development. Each project is guided from initial concept through to deployment and proof of concept validation.
The sub-sea cabled observatory at SmartBay includes:
SmartBay infrastructure includes:
FaBTest (Falmouth Bay Test Site) is an award-winning, pre-consented, 2.8km2 test area situated within Falmouth harbour, between three and five kilometres offshore in Falmouth Bay. The infrastructure provides demonstration opportunities for scaled or full scale devices, as well as providing scope for field demonstration of sub-systems such as moorings, foundations and umbilical cables are all supported.
FaBTest has a pre-consented status, which allows for up to three devices to be deployed concurrently, aims to provide a fast, flexible low risk and low cost solution for the testing of marine energy technologies, components, moorings and deployment procedures. The site offers water depths of 20m-50m and seabed types of rock, gravel and sand. Operational support of the site, as well as ongoing monitoring and world leading research is provided by the Renewable Energy Group from the University of Exeter, based on the nearby Penryn campus.
FaBTest has unique pre-consent for device demonstration which fit in to the envelope of licenced activity. Such devices require no additional lease of licences for deployment, reducing time and cost to developers. Full site survey and resource characteristics available to support planning, design and deployment process. The facility provides the opportunity to generate knowledge and test data through field demonstration for whole systems and sub-systems such as moorings, marine power cables and validation of numerical models. A minimum of 8 weeks is required to go through diligence process with FaBTest regulatory panel and the minimum of installation interval is 1 month.
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The towing tanks by CNR-INSEAN form a world-class site for research and industry projects on marine transport, structures and ORE systems, and are classified as Large Oceanographic Infrastructures by the Italian National Research Council. The facility has two infrastructures:
A movable wind-generation rig is available in both tanks. The infrastructure is relevant for testing wave, tidal, offshore wind devices with TRL up to 5. Large-scale models can be tested under combinations of waves, winds and current (by towing) to reproduce relevant operating conditions in a highly controlled and repeatable environment. Advanced measuring systems are available to fully characterize operating conditions and device performance, including Laser-Doppler velocimetry equipment (LDV, PIV, Stereo-PIV), high-speed cameras, hydroacoustics sensoring. Acquisition systems can be interfaced with models and equipment provided by TNA Users.
Both wave and calm water tanks provide unique conditions for testing complex systems (i.e., hybrid wave/wind concepts), exceptionally large models and model arrays. Tidal turbine model with diameter of 1.5 m was hosted in FP7 MaRINET.
Services currently offered by the infrastructure:
The facility is designed and equipped for hydrodynamics studies on marine structures and vehicles. In case of ORE systems, standard services include:
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The FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility is a 25m diameter, 2m deep circular combined wave-current basin. The tank is equipped with 168 active-absorbing wavemakers and 28 flow drive units which provide 360-degree independent directional control of the wave and current systems. The unique configuration of the tank allows for the recreation of highly complex directional sea-states and combined wave-current conditions at scales of approximately 1:20-1:30.
FloWave’s staff are highly experienced in the testing of offshore renewable energy technologies and will provide engineering support to clients before, during and after their test programme. The facility is equipped with a video motion capture system (above and below water), voltage/current data-acquisition, and a selection of instrumentation (including submersible loadcells). The on-site workshop may also be made available for model repair and modification.
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With about 300 m length, 5 m width and 7 m depth the Large Wave Flume (Großer Wellenkanal, GWK) is one of the largest facilities of its kind worldwide and allows for fully controllable large scale tests with waves. The piston type wave maker of GWK has a maximum stroke of 4.0 m and an active wave absorption system to avoid unwanted re-reflections of waves at the wave paddle. It can generate regular waves, theoretical and measured natural sea states, focused waves and solitary waves with wave heights of more than 2 m (3m for focused waves).
The modern data acquisition system records up to 120 channels at a maximum rate of 20 kHz/channel and lots of measurement devices, like wave gauges, ADV, EMV, pressure cells, load cells, strain gauges, accelerometers, single and multibeam echo sounders, ABS sensors, 2D and 3D laser scanners as well as a synchronized video system are available to the users of GWK.
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The MARIN Concept Basin has a length of 220 m, a width of 4 m and a depth of 3.6 m. The basin is filled with fresh water. The basin is mainly designed to perform calm water and seakeeping model tests of ships and structures in the concept phase. Furthermore, the basin can be used for research purposes.
The basin has a stiff overhead carriage which runs over the full length of the basin. The maximum speed is 10 m/s.The carriage can be fitted with a large stroke vertical (VIV) oscillator to test vortex induced vibrations on pipes, risers and other slender constructions. Maximum Reynolds number up to 5E5.
Waves and wind
A wave generator is fitted at the end of the basin. The wave generator consists of 8 hinged flaps. Each flap (with a width of 50 cm) has its own driving motor, which is controlled separately. The capacity of the wave generator is up to a significant wave height of 0.55 m at a peak period of 2.3 seconds. Regular wave capacity is 1.1 m at a peak period of 2.3 seconds. Opposite the wave generator, a passive sinkable wave absorber is installed. The wave generator is equipped with compensation of wave reflections form (ARC) the model and the wave absorbing beach. Wave generation is based on higher order wave synthesis techniques.
Wind can be simulated by an adjustable platform spanning the full width of the basin fitted with electrical fans.
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The Wave-Current Flume (WCF) of LABIMA – Laboratory of Maritime Engineering (www.labima.unifi.it), University of Florence, is operating continuously since 1980 and the research group has gained top level experiences in experimental methods.
The WCF has been fully rebuilt in 2013 by using the top level state of the art technologies. The WCF has already operated as one of the MARINET1 installations during the period 2013-2015 and 5 projects, leaded by international research groups, were conducted successfully.
Moreover, the researchers have top level skills with many softwares for off-shore/near-shore and near-field numerical simulations, among others: DHI-MIKE21, Veri-tech CEDAS, WW3, SWAN, OpenFoam, Lattice Boltzamnn Method for fluid dynamics and a number of proprietary codes (e.g. PMS equation based solver for refraction-diffraction, Sea State generation, short-term and long-term wave analysis, etc. …)
The WCF has the following features:
Main sensors available include: resistive wave gauges, acoustic water surface level gages, load cells, pressure transducers, acoustic doppler current profiler, electromagnetic flow meter, digital video cameras, fast camera.
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The acronym COAST highlights the laboratory’s multipurpose foci on Coastal, Ocean and Sediment Transport representing a major enhancement in UK capability. Its construction and equipping was part-funded by ERDF funding through the South West Regional Development Agency (SWRDA), Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), and the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in partnership with the University of Plymouth.
COAST provides a unique capability for research and testing of wave and tidal Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) devices, either alone or in an array, offshore engineering, coastal engineering and environmental impact modelling. Expertise and support derives both from specialist staff appointed to support the facility as well as from academic and technical staff associated with the COAST Engineering Research Group and other recognised research centres within the School of Engineering.
The facilities are nationally and internationally leading in their capability of providing a complete package of model testing and data analysis under combined wave, current and wind loading. The COAST laboratory in unique in the UK and comprises various deep and shallow water experimental facilities including an Ocean Basin, 35 m long x 15.5 m wide x 3 m deep which is operable at different depths of water via a moving floor. The Ocean Basin incorporates 24 flap wave-makers with the additional capability of a recirculating current both in-line with, and transverse to the waves.
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Mutriku Wave Power Plant, using OWC – Oscillating Water Column technology, is integrated in the breakwater of Mutriku and consists of 16 air chambers and 16 sets of Wells turbines + electrical generator of 18,5 kW each. The plant is grid connected and is available as a test site providing one of the positions (chamber + grid connection) to test new concepts in air turbines, generators, control strategies and auxiliary equipment.
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The QUB wide wave tank measures 18m x 16m x 1.2m and operates with water depths up to approx. 650mm. The facility is capable of producing a variety of regular, irregular and directional waveforms. Waves are generated by a bank of paddles set at one side of the tank with gravel beaches present on the remaining 3 sides.
The Portaferry Wave Basin facility is primarily designed for the recreation of highly accurate wave climates with minimal spatial variation and is thus ideally suited for testing of arrays of wave energy converters.
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SSPA offers both several facilities for hydrodynamic testing and extensive experience in hydrodynamic design. SSPA can as such be of assistance for initial testing and evaluation or in the design optimization process for a device which are farther in the development process.
SSPA’s research and consultancy mainly revolves around testing and design of structures and vessels in the marine environment, and the techniques used are much the same as is needed for Marine Energy Conversion. Therefore SSPA have worked for several years in research projects and as a consultant for various Marine Energy Conversion projects.
In MaRINET2 the following facilities can be utilized:
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Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP) is an infrastructure for testing marine energy converters, located just off the coast of Armintza, northern Spain. With a grid connection capacity of 20 MW, purpose built substation and offices, the platform offers technology developers the opportunity to demonstrate their latest devices in test-friendly wave conditions. Along with a sister installation at Mutriku (Mutriku Wave Power Plant) BiMEP is able to provide a wide range of services in real sea conditions.
In addition, a consortium made up of BiMEP and IH Cantabria has been tasked with developing a scientific and technological project called TRL+. The purpose of TRL+ is to offer innovative tailored solutions for the development of marine technologies from concept through to field testing.
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The Islandsberg marine research site has been up and running since 2004 with over 10 wave power plants, marine substations and grid connection installed between 2005 and today. The test facility has expanded during the years until today with a total area of 0.5 square kilometers at 25 meters depth and is located 200 km north of the Gothenburg area. The wave climate at the site is relatively calm by international standards, approximately 3 kW/m annual average, wave heights reaching a maximum Hs of approximately 4.5m. The site is well situated for smaller scale tests and has good accessibility.
Infrastructure installed and used during current experiments are a power cable at 1 kV, grid connection, marine substation w 7 inputs including AC/DC/AC and transformer to 1kV. Observation tower on nearby islet w camera. Measuring station w loads, grid connection, measurements and communication w Uppsala university.
Uppsala University has the largest research group in Sweden when it comes to Ocean Energy and to conduct real sea testing. Together with SP Technical Research Institute with a staff of 1500 in different fields of research we are able to support in many levels depending on what expertise is required.
A joint venture between Uppsala University, Lysekil municipally and SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden is now underway to develop the site into a test site available for developers outside the scope of research at Uppsala university.
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BGO FIRST is a large and deep basin (40mx16mx4.8m) with wave, current and wind generation capabilities and specific features such as its movable and inclinable floor (which allows the performance of tests in any water depth, from 0 to 4.8m), its pit of a 10m total depth, its large amplitude forced motions platform, its dynamic winch as an alternative to wind generation, its PTOs, its DP pods, its in-house workshop and instrumentation, its experienced personnel… The combination of these capabilities makes the BGO FIRST be on the most equipped sea keeping tank in Europe.
It has been operated since 1998 by OCEANIDE who has now more than 230 tests campaign references in this facility, mainly for the energy industry. More information can be found on OCEANIDE web site: www.oceanide.net.
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The PLOCAN Marine Test Site is located on the East coast of Gran Canaria Island (Spain, www.plocan.eu). The Canary Islands are located in the Atlantic Ocean, south-west of Spain and Northwest of Africa. The marine test site includes an area of about 23 km2 with a wide range of water depth from shoreline to 600 m. This Marine Test Site is available to projects focused on testing and demonstrating of all kinds of marine devices but mainly marine renewable energy converters. The final testing decision would be conditioned to the appropriateness, opportunity and availability of the facilities.
The electrical and communication infrastructure (REDSUB) is composed of two medium voltage cables (13.2kV) with a capacity of 5MW, each one, within the range of ±1% of 50Hz. The infrastructure will be mostly underwater, comprising hybrid cabling, with copper cables for the transmission of electrical power and fibre optics for data transmission, including a short terrestrial section to connect to the electrical substation on land. The onshore infrastructure will go from the manhole up to the electrical substation (66kV), where the electricity is raised up for its deliver to the national transmission grid. The onshore infrastructure will be composed by an underground medium voltage cable with a capacity of 15MW, by a power transformer station (13.2kV to 66kV) and all electrical protections required. This part will only be available after the Summer of 2017.
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